Verified Human Interfaces, Control, and Learning for Semi-Autonomous Systems


VeHICaL is an NSF Cyber-Physical Systems (CPS) Frontier project that is developing the foundations of verified co-design of interfaces and control for human cyber-physical systems (h-CPS) --- cyber-physical systems that operate in concert with human operators. VeHICaL aims to bring a formal approach to designing both interfaces and control for h-CPS, with provable guarantees. The VeHICaL approach is bringing a conceptual shift of focus away from separately addressing the design of control systems and human-machine interaction and towards the joint co-design of human interfaces and control using common modeling formalisms and requirements on the entire system. This co-design approach is making novel intellectual contributions to the areas of formal methods, control theory, sensing and perception, cognitive science, security and privacy, and human-machine interfaces.

The foundational work being pursued in the VeHICaL project is being validated in two application domains: semi-autonomous ground vehicles that interact with humans inside and outside the vehicle, and semi-autonomous aerial vehicles (drones) that interact with human operators and humans in the environment.

Overview of the VeHICaL Approach


Principal Investigators

University of California, Berkeley


Richard Murray

UNC-Chapel Hill

Cynthia Sturton




(This is a partial list --- for other publications, please see the websites of the project PIs)



  • The Visual-Acoustic Vehicle Dataset is a set of multimodal data collected from a Lincoln MKS car including vehicle sensors information, 360º image data collected from eight cameras on top of the car, and LiDAR information. Visual-Acoustic Vehicle Dataset.
  • Collaboration between:

    Supported by the National Science Foundation under the Cyber-Physical Systems program